Dr. Wayne Binns was born July 20, 1911, in American Fork, Utah, where he grew up in an agricultural environment. He graduated from American Fork High School in 1931. His early association with the local veterinarian caused him to develop an interest in veterinary medicine and in getting a good education. He attended the University of Utah in Salt Lake City for one year then transferred to Utah State University at Logan where he completed his pre-veterinary studies in 1934. He then applied for admission to veterinary school at Iowa State University’s College of Veterinary Medicine and was accepted. He graduated in 1938 with his doctorate in Veterinary Medicine. The next two years were spent as a private practitioner in Illinois.
In May of 1940 he married Lucille Sparrow and they moved to St. Anthony, Idaho, where he continued to practice veterinary medicine. Shortly after he arrived in St. Anthony (August 1940), he received an invitation to join the staff of the Department of Veterinary Science at Utah State University. He signed a contract and he and Lucille moved to Logan, Utah, where he taught classes on animal health, advised pre-veterinary students, did diagnostic work, and did some extension work with the livestock people of the state. He was most happy and felt at home in his new job. In 1942 he was called into military service as a meat inspector in the Veterinary Corps. In 1946 he was discharged from the military and returned to Utah State University where he resumed teaching. He was an excellent teacher and very well liked and admired by the students. He continued to advise pre-veterinary students and urged them to get four years of schooling rather than the traditional three before applying to veterinary school. The number of veterinarians that he had advised that continued to contact him at meetings, university, etc. is a testament to their kind feelings towards him. During this time he also served as head of the Department of Veterinary Science. As such he was invited to consult with and give speeches to various livestock producers at their meetings throughout the state. He was highly regarded by the members of such organizations. In 1952 he was given the Ralston Purina Scholarship and a sabbatical leave to attend the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. He obtained a masters degree studying vibriosis in cattle.
During this time, Dr. Binns met with a small group of veterinarians at the annual or regional meeting of the American Veterinary Medical Association to discuss problems in toxicology. Papers were presented and a small proceedings was published. This group included Drs. Binns, James “Jim” Tucker, Rudy Radeleff, J.W. Dollahite, and others. They laid the foundation on which the later American Board of Veterinary Toxicologists was formed. At this time, toxicology did not play a significant role in research.
Dr. Ward Huffman, veterinarian in charge of research on stock poisoning by plants for the USDA Agricultural Research Service, retired in 1954. Dr. Binns was asked to take the position vacated by Huffman and accepted on the condition that the research headquarters on the effects of poisonous plants on livestock be moved from Salina Canyon in Utah to Logan. Previously, the Salina Canyon laboratory was vacated during the winter months because of deep snow. Research equipment was old and obsolete, having served the purpose for which it was built. The headquarters was moved to Logan in 1955; Dr. Binns was given an office in the Veterinary Science building on the campus of Utah State University.
Shortly after assuming his duties with ARS, he initiated research on halogeton and larkspur, two of the most troublesome plants in the West, and continued with field investigations of poisonous plant problems. Dr. Binns also became involved with and initiated research on two significant and serious problems in Idaho. One involved ewes giving birth to cyclopic lambs with associated facial defects. The incidence varied from about 2% to as high as 20% in sheep being grazed on range areas in the Boise National Forest. The other involved cows grazing on certain ranges in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington giving birth to calves with skeletal deformities commonly called “crooked calf disease.” The incidence of this condition has reached as high as 40% of calves born that must be destroyed.
Dr. Binns’ office was moved from the Veterinary Science building to an old Army barracks (Building TD) that had been moved onto campus to accommodate the increasing student numbers and staff following World War II. This would house the needed staff for the Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. During the next few years, Dr. Binns added Lynn F. James (1957), LeGrande Shupe (1960), and Richard Keeler (1962) to the staff to take care of the increasing amount of research to be done. By 1959 they had demonstrated that ewes grazing Veratrum californicum on day 14 of gestation gave birth to cyclopic malformed lambs. This paved the way for the identification of the compound in the plant responsible for the malformations. Further, it was shown that ewes grazing Veratrum on days 29-31 gave birth to lambs that had a shortening of the long bones in the body, and that ewes grazing the plant on days 17-19 had lambs with tracheal stenosis. The crooked calf condition was shown to be caused by cows grazing certain lupines on days 40-70 of gestation. This resulted in skeletal malformations and cleft palates in the offspring. Much has been accomplished based on Dr. Binns’ early work.
In 1962 Dr. Binns was awarded the USDA-ARS service award based on research for his work on the malformed lamb problem and his contributions to the area of teratology.
Dr. Binns retired in 1972 due to health problems but continued in service to his fellow beings. He spent a great deal of time as a volunteer in the public school systems, helping children learn how to read. In addition, he gave 18 months of his time in service to his church as a missionary in New York City.
He died January 1994 at the age of 83.
This tribute to Wayne Binns was contributed by Lynn F. James, USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, Logan, Utah
James W. Dollahite
Dr. James W. (Dolly) Dollahite was born on May 1, 1911, and grew up in West-Central Texas near Johnson City, TX. He received his D.V.M. degree from The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in 1933. He worked for the U.S. Government and practiced until World War II. He served as a U.S. Army Veterinarian during the war and later retired as a Lieutenant Colonel in the U.S. Air Force Reserve. Following the war, he went back into veterinary practice in Marfa, TX but developed an interest in toxicology. Dr. Dollahite combined his practice and a part-time position with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station's Alpine Station to further his interests in plant toxicology. He also held a research position with the USDA at Beltsville, MD.
In 1956, he started a full-time TAES position and was responsible for moving the Alpine Research Station to become the Marfa Toxic Plant Research Station, during which time he drove many miles over West Texas and Southern New Mexico investigating toxic plant problems and developing his toxic plant research. He closed the Marfa Station and moved his research endeavors to College Station in 1958, where he was in the then Veterinary Research Section of the College of Veterinary Medicine. He received his M.S. Degree in Veterinary Physiology (there was no formal Toxicology Program at the time) in 1961.
J.W. became an Associate Professor of Pathology in 1962 and Professor in 1965. He transferred to the Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology in 1968 where he was instrumental in establishing the Ph.D. program in Toxicology in 1969. Dr. Dollahite was a Charter and Founding Diplomate of the American Board of Veterinary Toxicology (1966-7). J.W. continued his research on toxic plants until his retirement from Texas A & M in 1975. He carried on his toxic plant research with the USDA ARS Veterinary Toxicology and Entomology Research Laboratory, College Station, TX, until his full retirement in 1980. J.W. died July 26, 1984.
Dr. J.W. Dollahite played a very important role in the development of veterinary toxicology research in Texas, especially toxic plant research, and the development of Veterinary Toxicology as a Specialty under the American Veterinary Medical Association. Dr Dollahite's greatest attribute was his power of observation of clinical signs in diseased animals. He had over 70 research publications.
This tribute to James Dollahite was contributed by E. Murl Bailey, Jr., Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas.
Dr. Rudolph D. Radeleff was Director of the Veterinary Toxicology and Entomology Research Laboratory, A.R.S., U.S.D.A., College Station, Texas, from 1967 to 1974. Dr. Radeleff was largely responsible for the design, staffing, and formulation of the mission of this USDA Research Laboratory. Prior to that time, he was Director of the U.S.D.A. Toxicology Research Laboratory at Kerrville, Texas. Dr. Radeleff began his 27 years of service with the U.S. Department of Agriculture as a meat inspector, and he had previously practiced in Kerrville, Texas. He also served as Adjunct Professor, Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, as a professor of toxicology.
Dr. Radeleff was born in Kerrville, Texas, April 23, 1918 and died January 7, 1974. He received his D.V.M. degree from the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in 1941. He was a research toxicologist of worldwide acclaim. He actively sought and found recognition for the science of toxicology and has an outstanding record of research accomplishments. Many of his suggestions made during 27 years of USDA service concerning safe dosages of agricultural chemicals in the treatment of livestock and crops have been accepted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and industry and are still valid.
Dr. Radeleff was the author of the book “Veterinary Toxicology”, published in the first and second editions – the first American text published on this subject. This text has become the main reference work for both practicing veterinarians and veterinary students, and was available in a Spanish translation. He was the author of over 100 scholarly and scientific publications and has made numerous contributions to books and reviews.
Dr. Radeleff was the recipient of numerous honors and awards, including: Distinguished Service Award U.S.D.A.; Charter Fellow, American College of Veterinary Toxicologists; Certificate of Merit, U.S.D.A., 1964, for outstanding contributions to research programs; Diplomat, American Board of Veterinary Toxicology. He was a member of many professional societies, including: American Animal Health Association, American Academy of Clinical Toxicologists, American Society of Veterinary Physiologists and Pharmacologists, American Veterinary Medical Association, Conference of Research Workers of North America, Society of Toxicology, World Association of Veterinary Physiologists, Pharmacologists, and Biochemists.
Dr. Radeleff served as President, American College of Veterinary Toxicologists from 1962 to 1966. He was a member of the organizing committee, American Board of Veterinary Toxicology, 1965-67 and a charter Diplomate; of the Spencer Memorial Award Jury, Kansas City Branch of American Chemical Society, 1965-1967; and of the Committee to Review Veterinary Drug Efficacy, NRC, National Academy of Sciences, 1966. He served as President of the American Board of Veterinary Toxicology, 1967-1970. He was Co-chairman, Section of Research, American Veterinary Medical Association, 1967. He served on the panel of the Committee for Toxicological Information Program, National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, 1970. He was a member of the Advisory Board on Veterinary Medical Specialties, American Veterinary Medical Association, from 1970 until his death. He represented the Agricultural Research Service at the World Veterinary Congress, Madrid, Spain, 1959. He served on the Secretary of Agriculture’s Task Force to study the organization and operation of Pesticide Regulation Division, 1965. Dr. Radeleff was appointed in 1970 to the Texas Governor’s panel to advise the Governor and the Texas Legislature on safe use of agricultural chemicals.
This tribute to Rudolph Radeleff was contributed by E. Murl Bailey, Jr., Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A & M University, College Station, Texas